By Christopher Corèdon
An curiosity within the heart a while usually brings the non-specialist reader up brief opposed to a observe or time period which isn't understood or in simple terms imperfectly understood. This dictionary is meant to place an finish to all that: it's been designed to be of genuine support to basic readers and experts alike. The dictionary includes a few 3,400 phrases as headwords, starting from the criminal and ecclesiastic to the extra prosaic phrases of lifestyle. Latin was once the language of the church, legislation and govt, and plenty of Latin phrases illustrated listed below are usually present in sleek books of background of the interval; equally, the ideal which means of outdated English and heart English phrases could elude present day reader: this dictionary endeavours to supply readability. as well as definition, etymologies of many phrases are given, within the trust that figuring out the beginning and evolution of a note supplies a greater realizing. There also are examples of medieval phrases and words nonetheless in use this present day, a different relief to clarifying that means. CHRISTOPHER COREDON has additionally compiled the Dictionary of Cybernyms. Dr ANN WILLIAMS, ancient advisor at the undertaking, was once until eventually her retirement Senior Lecturer in medieval heritage on the Polytechnic of North London.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases
Villeins were demanding cash for work, reflecting a society caught in the cash cycle. – Cf. Feudalism Bastide. The term sometimes used of the fortified or castle boroughs established by Edward I. Bastides were first established in Gascony by Kings John and Henry III. Being of military as well as economic value they were somewhat like the English *burhs, although such fortifications were more widespread and stronger in France, where there are walled towns still. The word bastide is Provençal. A slightly later Latin form, bastila, formed the basis of the name of the well-known Parisian prison, the Bastille.
Cf. Alba firma; Inblanch Bishop’s Lynn. King’s Lynn was known thus until the reign of Henry VIII. Bivallate. A defensive structure comprising two encircling walls. [< L bi = two + vallatus = walled] – Cf. Vallate Black canons. *Augustinian monks, so called after the colour of their *habit. – Cf. Black monks Black Death. Yersinia pestis, 1348. In the words of a contemporary chronicler, the year 1348 was the year of ‘the great mortality’, though there were other outbreaks in the 14c (1362, 1369, 1375).
Pastourelle; Reverdie Augustinian. Monastic order named after St Augustine (of Hippo), one of the Fathers of the Church; the order followed the Rule of St Augustine and had two branches, *Augustinian canons and *Augustinian friars. 1106. At their peak they had more than 200 houses. – Cf. next; Patristic Augustinian canons [Austin canons]. Their full name was Canons Regular of St Augustine. They were sometimes known as Black Canons because of their black cassock. Their rule was based on care of the sick, on self-discipline, on love of God and of neighbour.