By Melvin Joseph Adler
The aim of this essay is to either speak about instructions as a species of speech act and to debate instructions in the broader framework of ways they're used and reacted to.
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Extra info for A Pragmatic Logic for Commands
If questions such as these can be rationally and reasonably answered, then the answers justify the use of the institution of com mands in the particular case involved, but it is unreasonable to say that commands follow from such justification in the logical sense of 23 the term. 3. , condition (1), the sincerity rule, and the essential rule). (4) Requirements defining the source of an utterance as an authority: The source of an utterance is an authority with respect to an ad dressee if either (i) he is entitled and is believed or known by the addressee to be 24 so entitled, or (ii) if the addressee (temporarily or otherwise) concedes to the source the status of an authority.
6') (X 6 , I, now, Ag) Example (7) is similar to (5) and (6) in that the authority ex pects the addressee to obey it as soon as the precondition obtains: it differs from them in not using the identity precondition. Its formali zation is (7') where 'Tom'≡ X 7 , 'the next time you go to London'≡K 7 , and 'buy a winter coat'≡ A 7 . (7') (X 7 , K 7 , now, A 7 ) Informally, it will perhaps be instructive to write out the logic al structures (1') - (7') in words; that is to say, one can think of the forms ( 1 " ) - ( 7 " ) as the formalizations of (1) - (7).
In other words, in practice, most addressees do not treat chains-ofcommand as transitive. , using a chainof-command) - a distinction I want to be able to make analytically be cause in real life people both circumvent and use chains-of-command. 29 A PRAGMATIC LOGIC FOR COMMANDS 26 Where do chains-of-command come into the picture ? What commandrelated problems can they be used to solve ? ' and Helen to Dick: 'Get out of this house and stay out all day ! ' ) . This brings us to the obedience of commands.