Academic Vocabulary in Use by Michael McCarthy

By Michael McCarthy

Educational Vocabulary in Use is the proper learn relief for a person utilizing English for his or her educational paintings. excellent for college kids of any self-discipline, from engineers or social scientists to enterprise scholars or legal professionals, it covers all of the key vocabulary they'll encounter in educational textbooks, articles, lectures and seminars, letting them functionality with a bit of luck in an English-speaking educational

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The pulp is then washed and eparated from the spent cooking liquor which has turned dark and is now appropriately called black liquor. An important feature of kraft pulping is a chemical recovery system which recycles about 95% of the cooking chemicals and produces more than enough energy to the mill. In a series of steps involving a furnace and tanks, some of the black liquor is transformed into energy, while some is regenerated into the original white cooking liquor. The recovery system is an integral part of production in the pulp and paper industry.

Reviewed 14 studies. QUESTIONS 28-43 You are advised to spend about 25 minutes on Questions 28-43 which refer to Reading Passage 3 below READING PASSAGE 3 Human-powered Pumps for African Farmers The plight of many African farmers and families in their search for water is well publicised in terms of disaster relief Yet in many areas there are small dispersed sources of shallow ground water, which constitute a considerable resource This is often not acknowledged by government agencies which think only in terms of large dams and perennial rivers African farmers are both ingenious and knowledgeable, and the work described here builds on these indigenous skills The provision of effective and affordable human powered pumps transforms the possibilities of water supply for both small scale irrigation and domestic use The field work was carried out predominantly in Zimbabwe, although more recently the pumps described here have been introduced in Kenya The need for water An adequate supply of domestic water is vital for human health and hygiene Despite the great progress made in the recent decade, the achievement of the goal of clean water for all is still a long way off An adequate water supply is also vital for the production of food In many parts of Africa, rainfall is a very unreliable provider of such water For example, in Zimbabwe, Mupawose (1984) states that unreliable rainfall and the incidence of midseason drought represent the single most critical uncertainty facing the Zimbabwean farmer today While staple foods such as maize and nee produced during the rainy season can be stored for consumption in the dry season, the same is not true of vegetables and fruit which are essential for good nutrition Since the early part of this century, the answer to the problem of inadequate rainfall has been through the provision of conventional irrigation schemes Traditional arrangement for vertical wells The failure of such schemes in many parts of Africa is well documented (Morris and Thorn, 1990) and there is little hope of significant expansion in this sector Most of these irrigation schemes depend on the utilization of surface water resources.

Mtero and Chimbunde, 1991 List of statements A Dams usually take up a lot of land so that farmers have to move somewhere else. B There has been little success with irrigation projects. C It is important to have an adequate water supply. D Human power is still cheaper and more readily available. E Rainfall is too little and too irregular when most needed. F Building dams has helped improve health. G There is a plan to improve individual domestic wells. H Experiments have been done to provide energy to pump water.

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