By Victor Kaptelinin, Bonnie A. Nardi
Job idea -- a conceptual framework initially built by way of Aleksei Leontiev -- has its roots within the socio-cultural culture in Russian psychology. The foundational notion of the idea is human job, that's understood as practical, mediated, and transformative interplay among humans and the area. because the early Nineteen Nineties, task conception has been a visual landmark within the theoretical panorama of Human-Computer interplay (HCI). in addition to another frameworks, corresponding to allotted cognition and phenomenology, it tested itself as a number one post-cognitivist process in HCI and interplay layout. during this publication we talk about the conceptual foundations of job thought and its contribution to HCI research.
After making the case for thought in HCI and in short discussing the contribution of task thought to the sector (Chapter One) we introduce the old roots, major principles, and ideas of job concept (Chapter Two). After that we current in-depth analyses of 3 matters which we reflect on of precise value to present advancements in HCI and interplay layout, particularly: business enterprise (Chapter Three), adventure (Chapter Four), and activity-centric computing (Chapter Five). We finish the e-book with reflections on demanding situations and clients for additional improvement of task thought in HCI (Chapter Six).
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Extra resources for Activity Theory in HCI: Fundamentals and Reflections
BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF ACTIVITY THEORY I will call the processes of activity the specific processes through which a live, that is, active relation of the subject to reality is realized, as opposed to other types of processes (Leontiev, 1981). Immediately after introducing the concept of activity Leontiev introduced the concept of the object of activity. He emphasized that activities cannot exist without their objects: “Any activity of an organism is directed at a certain object; an ‘objectless’ activity is impossible” (Leontiev, 1981).
Human beings live in a predominantly man-made world, where objects are not necessarily physical things: they can be intangible, but they can still be considered “objects” as long as they objectively exist in the world. For instance, the objects of learning a new language or making a company profitable are impossible to touch, physically weigh, or measure with a ruler. However, the grammatical structure of a language or profit margin of a company does not exist merely in a person’s imagination. Rather, they are “facts of life,” which need to be faced and dealt with.
The approaches provide complementary perspectives on human activities. Leontiev’s variant mostly focuses on individuals understood as social creatures acting in social contexts. , actions—of individual subjects. In addition, a number of other current frameworks are partly influenced by activity theory and partly built upon other approaches. Such frameworks include, for instance, instrumental genesis (Rabardel and Bourmaud, 2003), genre tracing (Spinuzzi, 2003), and the systemic-structural activity theory (Bedny and Harris, 2005).