By Paul R. Kroeger
Masking either syntax (the constitution of words and sentences) and morphology (the constitution of words), this booklet equips scholars with the instruments and strategies had to examine grammatical styles in any language. scholars are proven tips on how to use normal notational units similar to word constitution timber and word-formation principles, in addition to prose descriptions. Emphasis is put on evaluating the various grammatical platforms of the world's languages, and scholars are inspired to perform the analyses via a various variety of challenge units and workouts.
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Extra resources for Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
Bill claimed that he saw her duck. John hit a man with a telescope. Each of the sentences in (1) contains a word which has more than one meaning. The word buck can mean either a male deer or (in American slang) a dollar. Similarly, the word bank can mean either a financial institution or a steep slope of land; the word duck can be used to refer to either a waterfowl or an action; and the preposition with can be used to express at least two different semantic relations (instrument vs. 2). 1 Now consider the examples in (2): (2) a the tall bishop’s hat b the woman on the committee that I met with yesterday Neither of these phrases contains an ambiguous word, but each of them can be interpreted in more than one way.
Morphemes of the first type (those that may occur as complete words) are said to be f r e e, while morphemes of the second type (those that may not) are said to be bound. In the examples in (13), trust, believe, spare, and palate are all examples of free morphemes, because they can occur alone as complete English words. The morphemes dis–, un–, -able, -ing, -ly, etc. are all bound, because they only occur as part of a larger word. The word chairman is an interesting example, because it contains two free morphemes.
E. ’ To summarize, we have identified four broad types of languages based on their characteristic word structures: 1. 2. Analytic (or isolating ): one morpheme per word; Agglutinating : strings of affixes, each marking a single grammatical feature; 23 24 Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction 3. Synthetic (Fusional or inf l ectional ): single affixes marking several grammatical categories at once (portmanteau morphemes); or suppletive forms; Polysynthetic : long strings of affixes or incorporated roots in a single word.