By An Laffut
This research goals to offer a scientific and finished description of the buildings serious about 3 very important varieties of alternation: the locative alternation, that's through a ways the main researched of the 3, the picture impact alternation and the material/product alternation. the writer appears on the buildings as a part of alternation, but in addition seems past the alternations, and analyzes and describes the structures of their personal correct. they're analyzed as three-participant structures with relational enhances, construing causation of the 3 major subtypes of relatives, specifically extensive, circumstantial and possessive family members. specific recognition is paid to the idea that of holicity, to the prestige of the prepositional phrase, and to collocational houses, which play a key function within the determination as to which exchange may be considered as the unmarked one inside of its building paradigm. The process taken is galvanized by way of systemic sensible grammar and will extensively be characterised as cognitive-functional.
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Additional info for Three-participant Constructions in English: A functional-cognitive approach to caused relations (Studies in Language Companion Series)
38 THREE-PARTICIPANT CONSTRUCTIONS IN ENGLISH (34) a. Jeremiah sprayed the paint on the wall (in five minutes) and there was half a can left over. b. Jeremiah sprayed the wall with the paint (in five minutes) and there was half a can left over. (35) a. Jeremiah sprayed the paint on the wall (in five minutes) and the wall was only half covered. b. Jeremiah sprayed the wall with paint (in five minutes) and the wall was only half covered. Tenny (1994:53) claims that the readings in (34a) and (35b) are forced, because as a definite direct argument, complete consumption (of the paint) and complete coverage (the wall) are entailed.
I sprayed paint on it. But as a counterexample, consider the following sentences in which the topical anaphoric pronoun does not occur postverbally, occupying the leftmost position. (25) (Everyone kept taking the mick out of her) and spraying this water on her. (CB) (26) (When he spotted a clean white wall, he worked himself free) and etched a vertical calendar in it. (CB) STATE OF THE ART 27 Similarly for structures in which the other element is more topical: (27) (At this point my mother suggested that since Kip hated the smell of perfume) we spray the dustbin liberally with it.
But in the second sentence, the state of the cart does not tell us anything about the pushing: any possible visible traces on the cart do not (necessarily) tell us anything about the progress of the pushing; Dowty speaks of an ‘indefinite change of state’ (1991:568). Consider the following attestation of an alternating locative structure: (7) (Or you could plan well ahead) and smear your face thickly with garlic paste, say, two weeks beforehand. (CB) The NG your face functions as Dowty’s Incremental Theme: the progress of the activity of smearing can be measured by looking at the state of the face, which can be fully, partially or not at all covered with garlic paste.